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<strong><em><strong>Slaves</strong> in Jacksonville, FL.</em> <br /></strong>

Slaves in Jacksonville FL.

Cazneau had been the first female war correspondent during the Mexican-American War. She had been a secret agent for President James K. Polk. She had been a proponent of the South, and endorsed the spread of slavery. Besides the United States, she had lived in Cuba and the Dominican Republic, and pushed for the annexation of both countries.

Her life has been called “a comedy of grandiose plans and bungled opportunities.” [20] She was a unique person in United States history, and experienced these events during an era that did not typically allow women to be part of the political, or military, arena.

[1] Hudson, Linda S., Mistress of Manifest Destiny, Austin (TX: Texas State Historical Association, 2001), 125.

[2] Ibid., 29.  

[3] Ibid., 32.  

[4] A footnote in Hartog's, "Marital Exits," 80 Geo LR 95, 118 n 96, which is derived from a microfilm copy of the Legal Papers of Aaron Burr, noted in fn. 51.

[5] Robert E. May, “Cazneau, Jane Maria Eliza McManus,” Handbook of Texas Online (Denton, TX: Texas State Historical Association),

[6] Robert E. May, Manifest Destiny’s Underworld: Filibustering in Antebellum America (Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina University Press, 2002), 9. Filibustering, in this context, refers to the military definition of the word. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, in U.S. history, filibustering is the attempt to take over countries at peace with the United States via privately financed military expeditions, a practice that reached its peak during the 1850s. May is not referring to the practice of using obstructive, or delaying tactics, used in the U.S. legislature.

[7] Godfrey Hodgson, “Storm Over Mexico,” History Today, Vol. 5, issue 3, 2005.

[8] May, TSHA.

[9] John L. O’Sullivan, “Annexation,” United States and Democratic Review, 17, no. 1, (July-August 1845), 5-10.

[10] Hudson, 46.

[11] Edward T. James, ed., Notable American Women 1607-1950: A Biographical Dictionary, Volume 1, A-F. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971, 316.

[12] Amy S. Greenberg, Manifest Manhood and the Antebellum American Empire (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 135-138.

[13] May, TSHA.

[14] Ibid., 194.

[15] Author Unknown, “REPORTED LOSS OF THE STEAM-SHIP EMILY B. SOUDER,” The New York Times, December 28, 1878,

[16] Hudson, 5.

[17] James, 316.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Allan Nevins, Hamilton Fish: The Inner Workings of the Grant Administration, Vol. 1 (New York: F. Ungar Pub. Co., 1957),  254.

[20] James, 317.